No adult is allowed to work more than 48 hours per week in a factory. An occupant of a medium or higher plant must submit a written report to the competent authority, i.e.dem. the chief plant inspector of the State in which the Annex 7 plant is located, at least 3 months before commencing this activity. An occupant must report the severe accident to the appropriate authority (the Chief Plant Inspector in the case of a plant) within 48 hours and submit a report on the accident in Appendix 6. If the plant is a medium or superior plant, the resident must establish an on-site emergency plan. A fire safety audit is essential. The city sits on a powder keg. Factories, with few fire safety precautions, work from buildings that flout the rules with impunity. Chemicals and flammable materials are stored in proper objects – there is virtually no regular check that the material is stored safely. Virtually no precautions are taken to ensure compliance with fire safety. A report by the citizens of Ludhiana indicates that barely 2% of industries, commercial facilities and educational institutions have received fire safety certificates. Many government buildings people visit still do not have the necessary fire safety precautions. Ludhiana experiences hundreds of fires every year – more than 500 – according to a conservative estimate.
Many people died in fires. A plastic factory fire in 2016 killed more than 16 people. Workers employed in the lower area were asphyxiated due to the lack of fire safety precautions. If the county administration does not take strict measures to ensure that fire safety rules at factories and commercial facilities are strictly adhered to, public safety will remain a serious concern. The Surat tragedy should have raised safety concerns not only for educational institutions, but also for industries where goods can be highly flammable and easily eviscerated. But how can you think about security measures in institutes and industries, if there are no security measures even in residential buildings, and even if they are installed, the measures are only displayed. Theoretically, all precautions are taken, but for practical reasons, nothing exists. In most cases, fire extinguishers installed in educational, industrial or residential buildings have passed their expiry date. Even if they are well into their expiration date, few people have the knowledge to operate the red cylinders. Even in schools and colleges, students are not trained on how to behave, what to do, and how to rush out of the building safely in the event of a fire or other natural disaster. This scenario is worst in small towns and villages where fire departments are not available and even teachers do not know how to use fire extinguishers. Firefighters are called from nearby major cities, but the fire will have already wreaked havoc by the time fire trucks arrive.
The agenda is therefore to train pupils and students on how to react in the event of an emergency. Simulated exercises should be conducted regularly to ensure that no lives are lost in the event of a fire or natural disaster. Firefighters should regularly inspect buildings to ensure adequate fire safety measures and take strict measures in case specified parameters are not met. Only then can we save our young people from entering the mouth of death. In addition, surprise checks should be carried out frequently to verify the true picture of safety, as advertised inspections can sometimes give schools time to take safety measures for the sole purpose of the inspection. It is a fact that the majority of commercial buildings in Ludhiana are subject to fire hazards. Many people who run their business out of these commercial buildings only think about making money and do not pay attention to fire safety standards. The problem can be solved by the administration with the active participation of businessmen. An elaborate survey to identify the areas threatened in the city by the city administration is essential. Firefighters should identify facilities that do not comply with fire safety standards and initiate a procedure of severe sanctions against them. As for factory owners, it is their duty to regularly check electrical wires, connections and loads to avoid short circuits.
At their level, they can also form a team of workers capable of controlling the fire in an emergency. The joint efforts of the municipal agency, firefighters and plant owners can control fires in commercial and residential facilities. A child under the age of 14 is not allowed to work in any factory. Women are allowed to work in any factory except between 7 p.m. and 6 a.m., which means that women are not allowed to work at night. However, some operations/processes are considered dangerous. Women are not allowed to work in such operations/processes. There are many regulations that must be strictly followed by the occupier.
Details are available in a publication known as the Factories Act, 1948. There are 120 sections divided into 11 chapters that can be referred to for detailed information. A resident is responsible for conducting on-site emergency plan exercises A safety standard refers to the condition in which it complies with established safety standards and regulations. It is the duty of all owners of their respective factories to comply with the safety rules applicable to their industry. When employers prioritize safety, they effectively eliminate accidents and help employees do their jobs without fear or worry. With this exercise, workers will enter the factory with a positive attitude. The most common problems that are dangerous for employees are fire, chemical fire and short circuits. Every employer must have a cell in their company to ensure that all workers have worn safety kits and that all fire extinguishers are in working order.
Loose wires or connections should be checked regularly to avoid breakdowns in advance. As part of the safety measures, training and education must be carried out to avoid accidents during test exercises. Employees should also be encouraged to learn how safety standards can be improved and implemented. Many fires are reported each winter, either due to the negligence of factory workers who light a campfire to combat the cold, or due to the neglect of fire safety standards in industrial buildings. In order to prevent fires in industrial and residential buildings, fire safety measures must be taken from scratch. You must safely install fire extinguishers in homes, stores and workplaces. It is also important to ensure that fire extinguishers replace their expiry date. Buckets of sand and water in sufficient quantities must always be kept ready for use on the factory premises in the event of a fire. Workers need to be given emergency numbers so they can call in time. Plants in which an operation/process listed in Annex 4 is carried out with one or more chemicals meeting one of the criteria set out in Part I of Annex I and/or column 2 of Part II of Annex I shall fall into this category. In each plant, all feasible measures must be taken to prevent the outbreak of a fire and its spread both indoors and outdoors and to provide and maintain safe escape routes for all persons in the event of a fire. Fires cause air pollution, loss of life and scarce resources.
Strict standards and rules are the order of the day. The equipment and facilities needed to extinguish fires must be ready for use in an emergency. Fire extinguishers, when expired, should be replaced regularly. However, simply installing fire extinguishers is not enough. Effective measures should be taken to ensure that all workers in each plant are aware of the means of escape in the event of a fire and are adequately trained in the routine to be followed in such cases. Simulated fire drills should be conducted regularly in factories and industries to ensure that no lives are lost in the event of a fire. The state government should adopt strict rules regarding each plant, class, or description of plants requiring action to be taken at the time of a major or minor fire. Section 38 of the Factories Act 1948 must be strictly enforced. In the event of serious damage, every factory owner should be held responsible and obliged to compensate the victims. The Chief Inspector appointed under the Factories Act 1948 should regularly visit factories under his jurisdiction and recommend appropriate action if he finds any mismanagement. If any of the operations or processes listed in Appendix 4 are carried out in a plant containing one or more hazardous chemicals, an occupant must first determine the category to which his plant belongs, i.e. whether the plant falls under the lower, intermediate or higher level, as the requirements/regulations are different for different categories of plants.
The term “factory” is defined in section 2(m) of the Factories Act 1948. This means that in all premises, if 10 or more workers are involved in a manufacturing process using electricity, or if 20 or more workers are involved in the manufacturing process without the aid of electricity, these premises are covered among the factories, 1948 This is a legal requirement for the appointment of a safety officer in the factory/dock, etc..